Rules for Biologically Inspired Adaptive Network Design (2010)
Atsushi Tero et al. has Physarum design alternative routing for the Tokyo rail system with comparable or even better efficiency and fault tolerance than the actual rail system. More about this technique can be found here.
Credits: Atsushi Tero, Seiji Takagi, Tetsu Saigusa, Kentaro Ito, Dan P. Bebber, Mark D. Fricker, Kenji Yumiki, Ryo Kobayashi and Toshiyuki Nakagaki